Industrialization, motorization, and urban development tend to increase the intensity of air pollution and GHG emissions in Indonesia. Referring to the report of Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations (AAQMS) in Jakarta for instance, it shows us that all of the major air pollution parameters measured exceeded the standard. Either it refers to WHO guideline/standard as well as national standard, with critical parameter consisting of PM, O3 and NOx.
Total vehicle fleet in Indonesia tends to increase dramatically, especially during the period of 2001/2002 after the market of motor vehicle emerged because of post-monetary crisis 1997/1998 economic recovery. As of end of 2020, the total population of vehicle fleet is more than 146 million units. In recent years, the total annual selling of cars is 1.1 million units, meanwhile motorcycle is 7 million units; of course, total population of motorcycle is dominating the vehicle fleet.