Industrialization, motorization and urban development tend to increase the intensity of air pollution and GHG emissions in Indonesia. Refering to the report of Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations (AAQMS) in Jakarta for instance, it shows us that almost all of major air pollution parameters measured exceeded the standard. Either it refers to WHO guideline/standard as well as national standard, with critical parameter consisting of PM, O3 and NOx.
Total vehicle fleet in Indonesia tends to increase dramatically, especially during the period of 2001/2002 after the market of motor vehicle emerged as a result of post-monetary crisis 1997/1998 economic recovery. As of end of 2020, total population of vehicle fleet is more than 146 million units. In recent year, the total annual selling of car is 1.1 million units, meanwhile motor cycle is 7 million units; of course, total population of motor cycle is dominating the vehicle fleet.